## Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics in the Ultrastrong-Coupling Regime.

In circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED), where superconducting artificial atoms are coupled to on-chip cavities, the exploration of fundamental quantum physics in the strong-coupling regime has greatly evolved. In this regime, an atom and a cavity can exchange a photon frequently before coherence is lost. Nevertheless, all experiments so far are well described by the renowned Jaynes–Cummings model. Here, we report on the first experimental realization of a circuit QED system operating in the ultrastrong-coupling limit, where the atom–cavity coupling rate g reaches a considerable fraction of the cavity transition frequency ωr. Furthermore, we present direct evidence for the breakdown of the Jaynes–Cummings model. We reach remarkable normalized coupling rates g/ωr of up to 12% by enhancing the inductive coupling of a flux qubit to a transmission line resonator. Our circuit extends the toolbox of quantum optics on a chip towards exciting explorations of ultrastrong light–matter interaction.

## Deep Strong Coupling Regime of the Jaynes-Cummings Model.

We study the quantum dynamics of a two-level system interacting with a quantized harmonic oscillator in the deep strong coupling regime (DSC) of the Jaynes-Cummings model, that is, when the coupling strength g is comparable or larger than the oscillator frequency ω (g/ω≳1). In this case, the rotating-wave approximation cannot be applied or treated perturbatively in general. We propose an intuitive and predictive physical frame to describe the DSC regime where photon number wave packets bounce back and forth along parity chains of the Hilbert space, while producing collapse and revivals of the initial population. We exemplify our physical frame with numerical and analytical considerations in the qubit population, photon statistics, and Wigner phase space.

## Dynamics of Entanglement via Propagating Microwave Photons.

We propose a simple circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED) experiment to test the generation of entanglement between two superconducting qubits. Instead of the usual cavity QED picture, we study qubits which are coupled to an open transmission line and get entangled by the exchange of propagating photons. We compute their dynamics using a full quantum field theory beyond the rotating-wave approximation and explore a variety of regimes which go from a weak coupling to the recently introduced ultrastrong-coupling regime. Due to the existence of single photons traveling along the line with finite speed, our theory shows a light cone dividing the space time in two different regions. In one region, entanglement may only arise due to correlated vacuum fluctuations while in the other, the contribution from exchanged photons shows up.

## Entanglement of Dirac fields in an Expanding Spacetime.

We study the entanglement generated between Dirac modes in a 2-dimensional conformally flat Robertson-Walker universe. We find radical qualitative differences between the bosonic and fermionic entanglement generated by the expansion. The particular way in which fermionic fields get entangled encodes more information about the underlying space-time than the bosonic case, thereby allowing us to reconstruct the parameters of the history of the expansion. This highlights the importance of bosonic/fermionic statistics to account for relativistic effects on the entanglement of quantum fields.

## Inner Products of Resonant Solutions in 1D Quantum Barriers.

The properties of a prescription for the inner products of resonance (Gamow states), scattering (Dirac kets) and bound states for one-dimensional quantum barriers are worked out. The divergent asypmtotic behaviour of the Gamow states is regularized using a Gaussian convergence factor first introduced by Zel’dovich. With this prescription, most of these states (with discrete complex energies) are found to be orthogonal to each other and to the Dirac kets, except when they are neighbours, in which case the inner product is divergent. Therefore, as it happens for the continuum scattering states, the norm of the resonant ones remains non-calculable. Thus, they exhibit properties halfway between the (continuum real) Dirac-δ orthogonality and the (discrete real) Kronecker-δ orthogonality of the bound states.

## Klein Tunneling and Dirac Potentials in Trapped Ions.

We propose the quantum simulation of the Dirac equation with potentials, allowing the study of relativistic scattering and Klein tunneling. This quantum relativistic effect permits a positive-energy Dirac particle to propagate through a repulsive potential via the population transfer to negative-energy components. We show how to engineer scalar, pseudoscalar, and other potentials in the 1+1 Dirac equation by manipulating two trapped ions. The Dirac spinor is represented by the internal states of one ion, while its position and momentum are described by those of a collective motional mode. The second ion is used to build the desired potentials with high spatial resolution.

## Mapping the Spatial Distribution of Entanglement in Optical Lattices.

In this work we study the entangled states that can be created in bipartite two-dimensional optical lattices loaded with ultracold atoms. We show that, by using only two sets of measurements, it is possible to compute a set of entanglement witness operators distributed over arbitrarily large regions of the lattice, and use these witnesses to produce two-dimensional plots of the entanglement content of these states. We also discuss the influence of noise on the states and on the witnesses, as well as the relation to ongoing experiments.

## Observation of the Bloch-Siegert Shift in a Qubit-Oscillator System in the Ultrastrong Coupling Regime.

We measure the dispersive energy-level shift of an LC resonator magnetically coupled to a superconducting qubit, which clearly shows that our system operates in the ultrastrong coupling regime. The large mutual kinetic inductance provides a coupling energy of ≈0.82 GHz, requiring the addition of counter-rotating-wave terms in the description of the Jaynes-Cummings model. We find a 50 MHz Bloch-Siegert shift when the qubit is in its symmetry point, fully consistent with our analytical model.

## Population Bound Effects on Bosonic Correlations in Noninertial Frames.

We analyze the effect of bounding the occupation number of bosonic field modes on the correlations among all the different spatial-temporal regions in a setting in which we have a space time with a horizon along with an inertial observer. We show that the entanglement between A (inertial observer) and R (uniformly accelerated observer) depends on the bound N, contrary to the fermionic case. Whether or not decoherence increases with N depends on the value of the acceleration a. Concerning the bipartition AR̄ (Alice with an observer in Rindler’s region IV), we show that no entanglement is created whatever the value of N and a. Furthermore, AR entanglement is very quickly lost for finite N and for N→∞. We will study in detail the mutual information conservation law found for bosons and fermions. By means of the boundary effects associated to N finiteness, we will show that for bosons this law stems from classical correlations while for fermions it has a quantum origin. Finally, we will present the strong N dependence of the entanglement in RR̄ bipartition and compare the fermionic cases with their finite N bosonic analogs. We will also show the anti-intuitive dependence of this entanglement on statistics since more entanglement is created for bosons than for their fermion counterparts.

## Quantum Correlations through Event Horizons: Fermionic versus Bosonic Entanglement.

We disclose the behavior of quantum and classical correlations among all the different spatial-temporal regions of a space-time with an event horizon, comparing fermionic with bosonic fields. We show the emergence of conservation laws for entanglement and classical correlations, pointing out the crucial role that statistics plays in the information exchange (and more specifically, the entanglement tradeoff) across horizons. The results obtained here could shed new light on the problem of information behavior in noninertial frames and in the presence of horizons, giving better insight into the black-hole information paradox.

## Quantum Entanglement Produced in the Formation of a Black Hole.

A field in the vacuum state, which is in principle separable, can evolve to an entangled state in a dynamical gravitational collapse. We will study, quantify, and discuss the origin of this entanglement, showing that it could even reach the maximal entanglement limit for low frequencies or very small black holes, with consequences in micro-black hole formation and the final stages of evaporating black holes. This entanglement provides quantum information resources between the modes in the asymptotic future (thermal Hawking radiation) and those which fall to the event horizon. We will also show that fermions are more sensitive than bosons to this quantum entanglement generation. This fact could be helpful in finding experimental evidence of the genuine quantum Hawking effect in analog models.

## Switchable Ultrastrong Coupling in Circuit QED.

We propose different designs of switchable coupling between a superconducting flux qubit and a microwave transmission line. They are based on two or more loops of Josephson junctions which are directly connected to a closed (cavity) or open transmission line. In both cases the circuit induces a coupling that can be modulated in strength, reaching the so-called ultrastrong coupling regime in which the coupling is comparable to the qubit and photon frequencies. Furthermore, we suggest a wide set of applications for the introduced architectures.

## The Unruh Effect in Quantum Information Beyond the Single-Mode Approximation.

We address the validity of the single-mode approximation that is commonly invoked in the analysis of entanglement in non-inertial frames and in other relativistic quantum information scenarios. We show that the single-mode approximation is not valid for arbitrary states, finding corrections to previous studies beyond such approximation in the bosonic and fermionic cases. We also exhibit a class of wave packets for which the single-mode approximation is justified subject to the peaking constraints set by an appropriate Fourier transform.

## Unveiling Quantum Entanglement Degradation Near a Schwarzschild Black Hole.

We analyze the entanglement degradation provoked by the Hawking effect in a bipartite system Alice-Rob when Rob is in the proximities of a Schwarzschild black hole while Alice is free falling into it. We will obtain the limit in which the tools imported from the Unruh entanglement degradation phenomenon can be used properly, keeping control on the approximation. As a result, we will be able to determine the degree of entanglement as a function of the distance of Rob to the event horizon, the mass of the black hole, and the frequency of Rob’s entangled modes. By means of this analysis we will show that all the interesting phenomena occur in the vicinity of the event horizon and that the presence of event horizons do not effectively degrade the entanglement when Rob is far off the black hole. The universality of the phenomenon is presented: There are not fundamental differences for different masses when working in the natural unit system adapted to each black hole. We also discuss some aspects of the localization of Alice and Rob states. All this study is done without using the single mode approximation.

## Zeno Physics in Ultrastrong-Coupling Circuit QED.

We study the Zeno and anti-Zeno effects in a superconducting qubit interacting strongly and ultrastrongly with a microwave resonator. Using a model of a frequently measured two-level system interacting with a quantized mode, we predict different behaviors and total control of the Zeno times depending on whether the rotating-wave approximation can be applied in the Jaynes-Cummings model. As an example, we show the dependence of our results with the properties of the initial field states.