Publications from 2018

Anisotropic Quantum Emitter Interactions in Two-Dimensional Photonic-Crystal Baths

Alejandro González-Tudela and Fernando Galve
Quantum emitters interacting with two-dimensional photonic-crystal baths experience strong and anisotropic collective dissipation when they are spectrally tuned to 2D Van-Hove singularities. In this work, we show how to turn this dissipation into coherent dipole–dipole interactions with tunable range by breaking the lattice degeneracy at the Van-Hove point with a superlattice geometry. Using a coupled-mode description, we show that the origin of these interactions stems from the emergence of a qubit-photon bound state that inherits the anisotropic properties of the original dissipation and whose spatial decay can be tuned via the superlattice parameters or the detuning of the optical transition respect to the band-edges. Within that picture, we also calculate the emitter induced dynamics in an exact manner, bounding the parameter regimes where the dynamics lies within a Markovian description. As an application, we develop a four-qubit entanglement protocol exploiting the shape of the interactions. Finally, we provide a proof-of-principle example of a photonic crystal where such interactions can be obtained.

Correlated dephasing noise in single-photon scattering

T. Ramos, J. J. García-Ripoll
We develop a theoretical framework to describe the scattering of photons against a two-level quantum emitter with arbitrary correlated dephasing noise. This is particularly relevant to waveguide-QED setups with solid-state emitters, such as superconducting qubits or quantum dots, which couple to complex dephasing environments in addition to the propagating photons along the waveguide. Combining input–output theory and stochastic methods, we predict the effect of correlated dephasing in single-photon transmission experiments with weak coherent inputs. We discuss homodyne detection and photon counting of the scattered photons and show that both measurements give the modulus and phase of the single-photon transmittance despite the presence of noise and dissipation. In addition, we demonstrate that these spectroscopic measurements contain the same information as standard time-resolved Ramsey interferometry, and thus they can be used to fully characterize the noise correlations without direct access to the emitter. The method is exemplified with paradigmatic correlated dephasing models such as colored Gaussian noise, white noise, telegraph noise, and 1/f-noise, as typically encountered in solid-state environments.

Dynamical Casimir Effect for Gaussian boson sampling

Borja Peropadre, Joonsuk Huh and Carlos Sabín
We show that the Dynamical Casimir Effect (DCE), realized on two multimode coplanar waveg-uide resonators, implements a gaussian boson sampler (GBS). The appropriate choice of the mirror acceleration that couples both resonators translates into the desired initial gaussian state and many-boson interference in a boson sampling network. In particular, we show that the proposed quantum simulator naturally performs a classically hard task, known as scattershot boson sampling. Our result unveils an unprecedented computational power of DCE, and paves the way for using DCE as a resource for quantum simulation.

Emergent causality and the N-photon scattering matrix in waveguide QED

E. Sánchez Burillo, A. Cadarso, L. Martín-Moreno, J. J. García-Ripoll, D. Zueco
In this work we discuss the emergence of approximate causality in a general setup from waveguide QED—i.e. a one-dimensional propagating field interacting with a scatterer. We prove that this emergent causality translates into a structure for the N-photon scattering matrix. Our work builds on the derivation of a Lieb–Robinson-type bound for continuous models and for all coupling strengths, as well as on several intermediate results, of which we highlight: (i) the asymptotic independence of space-like separated wave packets, (ii) the proper definition of input and output scattering states, and (iii) the characterization of the ground state and correlations in the model. We illustrate our formal results by analyzing the two-photon scattering from a quantum impurity in the ultrastrong coupling regime, verifying the cluster decomposition and ground-state nature. Besides, we generalize the cluster decomposition if inelastic or Raman scattering occurs, finding the structure of the -matrix in momentum space for linear dispersion relations. In this case, we compute the decay of the fluorescence (photon–photon correlations) caused by this S-matrix.

One-dimensional sections of exotic spacetimes with superconducting circuits

Carlos Sabín
We introduce analogue quantum simulations of 1 + 1 dimensional sections of exotic 3 + 1 dimensional spacetimes, such as Alcubierre warp-drive spacetime, Gödel rotating universe and Kerr highly-rotating black hole metric. Suitable magnetic flux profiles along a SQUID array embedded in a superconducting transmission line allow to generate an effective spatiotemporal dependence in the speed of light, which is able to mimic the corresponding light propagation in a dimensionally-reduced exotic spacetime. In each case, we discuss the technical constraints and the links with possible chronology protection mechanisms and we find the optimal region of parameters for the experimental implementation.

Quantum annealing in spin-boson model: from a perturbative to an ultrastrong mediated coupling

M. Pino, J. J. García-Ripoll
We study a quantum annealer where bosons mediate the Ising-type interactions between qubits. We compare the efficiency of ground state preparation for direct and mediated couplings, for which Ising and spin-boson Hamiltonian are employed respectively. This comparison is done numerically for a small frustrated antiferromagnet, with a careful choice of the optimal adiabatic passage that reveals the features of the boson-mediated interactions. Those features can be explained by taking into account what we called excited solutions: states with the same spin correlations as the ground-state but with a larger bosonic occupancy. For similar frequencies of the bosons and qubits, the performance of quantum annealing depends on how excited solutions interchange population with local spin errors. We report an enhancement of quantum annealing thanks to this interchange under certain circumstances.

Quantum decoherence of phonons in Bose-Einstein condensates

Richard Howl, Carlos Sabín, Lucia Hackermuller, Ivette Fuentes
We apply modern techniques from quantum optics and quantum information science to Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) in order to study, for the first time, the quantum decoherence of phonons of isolated BECs. In the last few years, major advances in the manipulation and control of phonons have highlighted their potential as carriers of quantum information in quantum technologies, particularly in quantum processing and quantum communication. Although most of these studies have focused on trapped ion and crystalline systems, another promising system that has remained relatively unexplored is BECs. The potential benefits in using this system have been emphasized recently with proposals of relativistic quantum devices that exploit quantum states of phonons in BECs to achieve, in principle, superior performance over standard non-relativistic devices. Quantum decoherence is often the limiting factor in the practical realization of quantum technologies, but here we show that quantum decoherence of phonons is not expected to heavily constrain the performance of these proposed relativistic quantum devices.

Quantum probe of an on-chip broadband interferometer for quantum microwave photonics

P Eder, T Ramos, J Goetz, M Fischer, S Pogorzalek, J Puertas Martínez, E P Menzel, F Loacker, E Xie, J J Garcia-Ripoll, K G Fedorov, A Marx, F Deppe and R Gross
Quantum microwave photonics aims at generating, routing, and manipulating propagating quantum microwave fields in the spirit of optical photonics. To this end, the strong nonlinearities of superconducting quantum circuits can be used to either improve or move beyond the implementation of concepts from the optical domain. In this context, the design of a well-controlled broadband environment for the superconducting quantum circuits is a central task. In this work, we place a superconducting transmon qubit in one arm of an on-chip Mach–Zehnder interferometer composed of two superconducting microwave beam splitters. By measuring its relaxation and dephasing rates we use the qubit as a sensitive spectrometer at the quantum level to probe the broadband electromagnetic environment. For frequencies near the qubit transition frequency, this environment can be well described by an ensemble of harmonic oscillators coupled to the transmon qubit. At low frequencies $\omega \to 0$, we find experimental evidence for colored quasi-static Gaussian noise with a high spectral weight, as it is typical for ensembles of two-level fluctuators. Our work paves the way towards possible applications of propagating microwave photons, such as emulating quantum impurity models or a novel architecture for quantum information processing.

Quantum simulation of Rindler transformations

Carlos Sabín
We show how to implement a Rindler transformation of coordinates with an embedded quantum simulator. A suitable mapping allows to realise the unphysical operation in the simulated dynamics by implementing a quantum gate on an enlarged quantum system. This enhances the versatility of embedded quantum simulators by extending the possible in-situ changes of reference frames to the non-inertial realm.

Quantum simulation of traversable wormhole spacetimes in a Bose-Einstein condensate

Jesús Mateos, Carlos Sabín
In this work we propose a recipe for the quantum simulation of traversable wormhole spacetimes in a Bose-Einstein condensate, both in 1 + 1D and 3+1D. While in the former case it is enough to modulate the speed of sound along the condensate, in the latter case we need to choose particular coordinates, namely generalized Gullstrand-Painlevé coordinates. For weakly interacting condensates, in both cases we present the spatial dependence of the external magnetic field which is needed for the simulation, and we analyze under which conditions the simulation is possible with the experimental state-of-the-art.

Topological phases in the Haldane model with spin–spin on-site interactions

A. Rubio-García, J. J. García-Ripoll
Ultracold atom experiments allow the study of topological insulators, such as the non-interacting Haldane model. In this work we study a generalization of the Haldane model with spin–spin on-site interactions that can be implemented on such experiments. We focus on measuring the winding number, a topological invariant, of the ground state, which we compute using a mean-field calculation that effectively captures long-range correlations and a matrix product state computation in a lattice with 64 sites. Our main result is that we show how the topological phases present in the non-interacting model survive until the interactions are comparable to the kinetic energy. We also demonstrate the accuracy of our mean-field approach in efficiently capturing long-range correlations. Based on state-of-the-art ultracold atom experiments, we propose an implementation of our model that can give information about the topological phases.

Transient non-confining potentials for speeding up a single ion heat pump

E. Torrontegui, S. T. Dawkins, M. Göd, and K. Singer
We propose speeding up a single ion heat pump based on a tapered ion trap. If a trapped ion is excited in an oscillatory motion axially the radial degrees of freedom are cyclically expanded and compressed such that heat can be pumped between two reservoirs coupled to the ion at the turning points of oscillation.

Ultrastrong coupling few-photon scattering theory

T. Shi, Y. Chang, J. J. García-Ripoll
We study the scattering of photons by a two-level system ultrastrongly coupled to a one-dimensional waveguide. Using a combination of the polaron transformation with scattering theory we can compute the one-photon scattering properties of the qubit for a broad range of coupling strengths, estimating resonance frequencies, lineshapes and linewidths. We validate numerically and analytically the accuracy of this technique up to α=0.3, close to the Toulouse point α=1/2, where inelastic scattering becomes relevant. These methods model recent experiments with superconducting circuits [P. Forn-Díaz et al., Nat. Phys. (2016)].